According to an expert, measurement and evaluation specialists prefer to use the term assessment ‘to describe the process of gathering information about students learning’. Assessment is a broader term than either of the two terms in common use, namely, testing and measurement. This is so because assessment ‘includes all kinds of way to sample and observe student’s skills, knowledge and abilities. She quotes the words of Linn and Gronloud by saying that assessment is ‘any of a variety of procedures used to obtain information about student performance’. Assessment can be formal, such as unit tests or informal, such as observing who emerges as a leader in group work. Anita Woolfolk points out.” Assessment can be designed classroom teachers or by local, state or national agencies” such as SCERT, NCERT, state or national level education testing service agencies.
A note of warning. The answers given and received on any type of test are the little value unless the results are interpreted in terms of:
- Norm: Referenced comparison which requires the comparison of specific test scores to the scores obtained by other students who have taken the same tests.
- Criterion: Referenced comparison which requires the comparison of specific test scores to a fined standard or minimum passing score.
TYPE OF ASSESSMENT
- FORMATIV -Done by the teacher during the course, To assess the learning process, To provide continuous feedback to the teacher, To improve learning instruction Exmp.-teacher made the assessment, etc.
- DIAGNOSTIC -To find the earning difficult, To know the specific area of weakness example-your student is weak in math. Exmp-observational techniques, etc
- SUMMATIVE -End of a course, Assigning grade according to the level of mastery, Giving promotion, This is also called terminal-teacher-made performance test, rating scale, etc
- PLACEMENT -Gather information about the learner to place in a group, To assess the student’s entry behavior, To test the previous knowledge, Exmp- readiness test, aptitude test, etc
Basic assumptions in educational evaluation and assessment:
On the basis of the above discussion of the concepts of measurement, evaluation, and assessment. We are in a position to point out a few basic assumptions underlying terms. Education is a process of bringing about purposeful changes in pupil’s behavior. The direction of this change is determined by the goals or objectives of teaching. This means education is a planned activity that attempts to attain desirable goals. Placed in this context, evaluation is the process by which we form judgments of students. Educational measurement is an estimation of specific changes in the pupil’s behavior. It doesn’t involve any value judgments and as such, it is not related to the goals. Evaluation in education, on the other hand, requires a clear concept of the goals the educator wishes to reach by means of instruction. It involves the ways and means of measuring the extent to which these goals are realized in our students.
Below are given a few assumptions which give a good idea of what is expected in basic educational measurement, evaluation, and assessment.
- Education is a process, the chief goal of which is to bring about changes in human behavior
- The sort of behavioral changes that the school attempts to bring about constitutes its objective.
- The evaluation consists of finding out the extent to which each and every one of these objectives has been attained.
- Human behavior is so complex that it can’t describe or summarized in a single score.
- The manner in which an individual organizes his behavior patterns is an important aspect to be appraised. Information gathered as a result of assessment or evaluation of activities must be interpreted as s part of the whole. The interpretation of small bits of behavior as they stand is of little real meaning.
- The techniques of assessment and evaluation are not limited to the usual paper and pencil tests. Any bit of valid evidence that helps a teacher or counselor in better understanding a student and that leads to helping the students understand himself better is to be considered worthwhile. An attempt should be made to obtain all such evidence by any means that seem to work.